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As a link-state routing protocol every OSPF router uses LSA (Link State Advertisement) to learn the exact same topology data. Exchanged LSAs are stored in LSDB (Link State Database) in which SPF (Shortest Path First) algorithm is executed to find the best route for every reachable subnet. OSPF routers use various types of LSAs. Here

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Myself Bipul Roy (CCIE# 36690), I am writing this after passing my CCIE Routing & Switching Lab and CCIE Service Provider Lab, just over 2 years ago. I think my experience will help students those are preparing for CCIE lab. I would request you to read all sections till the end. Have you ever thought,

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Network Address Translation (NAT) is designed for IP address conservation. It enables private IP networks that use unregistered IP addresses to connect to the Internet. NAT operates on a router, usually connecting two networks together, and translates the private (not globally unique) addresses in the internal network into legal addresses, before packets are forwarded to

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Port address translation is another variation of NAT and the most popular one and this is the one maximum people are using in the industry. It is also called NAT Overloading because it is designed to map many IP addresses to just a single registered IP address (overloaded address) by applying different port addresses in

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Access Control List (ACL) is used for filtering traffic based on a given filtering criteria on a router or switch interface. Based on the conditions supplied by the ACL, a packet is allowed or blocked from further movement.

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